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Dr. McGlone visits with Cesar Milan about dog pheromones
From ADSA-AMPA-ASAS-CSAS-WSASAS Joint Annual Meeting, July 8-12, 2013 in Indianapolis, Indiana
Pheromones and an Interomone Change the Physiology and Behavior of Anxious Dogs
W. G. Thompson* and J. J. McGlone
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Pheromones are species-specific odors used in communication and have been shown to have both behavioral and physiological effects. Interomones are pheromones in one species, but have diverse effects on other species. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of pheromones/interomones to modulate heart rate (HR) and behavior in adult anxious dogs (trembling, cowering, shy). The dogs (10.2±4.2 kg; estimated 5-10 yr old, intact males) and were professionally diagnosed as anxious. Each dog was housed in a separately-ventilated room with a minimum of 12 m² of floor space. Heart rate was measured using a telemetry system (Data Science International, St. Paul, MN USA). Behavior was recorded and later processed by a trained individual (blind to treatment group) using a scan sample with a recording interval of 5 min over a 24 h baseline period. At the end of 24 h with a treatment or control pheromone collar, each dog was startled with a 110 db fog horn while behavior and HR were recorded. Each dog received each treatment in a Latin Square design with repeated measures over time. This model allowed evaluation of effects of treatment, dog, treatment by dog, time, treatment by time and dog by time effects. Treatments were given in the form of a collar containing each pheromone/interomone and included Placebo, Sergeant's Formula H (SERG), 2-methylbut-2-enal -- Rabbit Pheromone (RP), or Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) collar. During baseline 24 h, DAP increased HR in 1 dog and decreased HR in 2 dogs; SERG increased HR in 2 dogs and decreased HR in 1 dog and RP increased HR in 2 dog and decreased HR in 2 dogs (dog by trt, P 0.0001). Dog lying behavior changed with SERG and RP but not DAP. After startle, each treatment changed dog HR in at least one dog (dog by trt, P = 0.002). Treatments caused one dog to increase while another decreased lying (dog by trt, P 0.001) after startle. Individual dogs changed behavior and HR differentially in response to the pheromones/interomones evaluated. The pheromones/interomones tested clearly changed dog heart rate and behavior. However, anxious dogs did not respond uniformly to each pheromone/interomone tested.
Key Words:pheromone, interomone, behavior
From ADSA-AMPA-ASAS-CSAS-WSASAS Joint Annual Meeting, July 15-19, 2012 in Phoenix, AZ
616 Pheromones and interomones that change heart rate and behavior of anxious dogs.
G. Thompson* and J. J. McGlone
Texas Tech University, Lubbock.
Pheromones are species-specific odors used in communication. Interomones are pheromones in one species, but have diverse effects on other species. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of pheromones/interomones to modulate heart rate and behavior in adult anxious dogs (trembling, cowering, shy). The dogs (8.1 ± 0.18 kg; estimated 5–12 yr intact males) were obtained from a local research facility. Body weights and feed intake were recorded. Each dog was housed in a separately ventilated room with a minimum of 12 m2 of floor space. Heart rate (HR) and surface temperature was measured using a telemetry system (Data Science International, St. Paul, MN). Behavior was recorded on a DVR and later reviewed by a trained individual. A scan sample was used with a recording interval of 5 min over 24 h. At the end of 24 h with a given pheromone collar, each dog was startled with a 110 db foghorn 12 cm from the dog's head while behavior and heart rate were recorded. Each dog received each treatment in a Latin square design with repeated measures over time. This model allowed evaluation of effects of treatment, dog, treatment by dog, time, treatment by time and dog by time. Treatments were given in the form of a collar containing each pheromone/interomone and included placebo (collar without pheromone), Sergeant's (SERG), 2-methylbut-2-enal–Rabbit Pheromone (RP), or a SERG+RP combined collar. Baseline HR did not differ among treatments (avg = 110.1 ± 13.3 bpm). After startle, the RP lowered (P 0.01) HR compared with placebo (124.5 ± 7.2 vs. 157.8 ± 7.2 bpm); however, the treatment by dog interaction (P 0.01) indicated certain dogs were more responsive than others. Dogs with RP collars spent more time lying down (87.4 ± 5.4 vs. 63.2 ± 4.8% of time, P = 0.01) and less time pacing (3.0 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.02%, P 0.05) than placebo-treated dogs. Pace/walk changed differentially among treatments and dogs (dog by RP and SERG effects for pace/walk, P = 0.05). In summary, RP lowered HR while SERG and SERG+RP did not change dog HR. However, pheromone/interomone treatments had differential effects on individual dog behavior and HR. Pheromones/ interomones can cause meaningful changes in dog behavior and HR among certain anxious dogs.
Key Words: pheromone, behavior, dogs
From American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists, 2014 (click on the title to download a PDF of this scientific paper)
CASE STUDY: The pig pheromone androstenone, acting as an interomone, stops dogs from barking
John J. McGlone, PAS, W.G. Thompson, and Kimberly A. Guay,PAS
Laboratory of Animal Behavior, Physiology and Welfare, Texas Tech University, Lubbock 79409-2141
Some dogs display behaviors such as excessive barking and jumping. Unwanted behaviors can often lead to animal abuse or pet relinquishment to a shelter. This study focused on the effects of androstenone on the behavior of dogs showing a barking and jumping syndrome. In the first study, barking dogs were sprayed with (a) nothing, (b) a placebo spray with sound or noise, (c) the same as (b) plus 0.1 μg/mL androstenone in isopropyl alcohol, (d) the same as (b) plus 1.0 μg/ mL androstenone in isopropyl alcohol. Dogs were videotaped for 1 min after treatment was applied. Treatments were effective at stopping barking and jumping in 25, 44, 78, and 100% of the barking and jumping dogs, respectively. Videos of the behavioral effects are available for viewing online (see Methods). A second study examined the effects of androstenone on heart rate and behavior while dogs were calm. Four “anxious” dogs were fitted with telemetry jackets and transmitters, heart rate was monitored continually, and cameras recorded behavior. Dog heart-rate data were measured for 10 min before and treatment, 10 min after isopropyl alcohol spray, and 10 min after a spray in the snout with androstenone. Neither androstenone nor isopropyl alcohol changed the heart rate of dogs compared with baseline. The pig pheromone, androstenone, working as an interomone reduced excitable behaviors of dogs. Behavior modification using pheromones can improve animal welfare by reducing the incidence of unwanted barking and jumping behaviors in dogs. Androstenone stops dog excitability through the olfactory system. Androstenone is a pheromone produced by pigs but acts as a powerful interomone in the dog.
Key Words: pheromone , interomone, dog , animal behavior
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Pheromone diffusers, sprays, or collars do tend to work for the majority of pets, however, some pets are less sensitive to them. We always recommend using pheromone products in conjunction with other methods, such as positive reinforcement training to modify unwanted behaviors, and environmental changes if required.What messages can dog pheromones transmit? ›
The pheromones can influence immediate behaviour responses from other dogs, as well as long-term responses. Pheromones communicate the dog's social status, age, genetic relatedness, and its emotional and physiological state.What is a pheromone in what ways are pheromones used among animals? ›
Pheromones are chemicals produced by one species that affects the physiology or behavior of animals of the same species. Pheromones assist in reproduction, feeding, social interactions and maternal-neonatal bonding in mammals. By definition and according to evolutionary theory, pheromones work within a species.What are some examples of how pheromones influence animal behavior? ›
A pheromone is a species-specific chemical signal that incites a response in another organism. Pheromones are involved in a wide variety of behaviors, including mate selection, food acquisition, alarm responses, territory marking, predation defenses, and other social behaviors indicating social status.Where do you rub a dog to calm down? ›
Starting at the back of the head, stroke up and down either side of your dog's spine using very gentle pressure. Be sure to stay off the bone. This type of back rub is calming and relaxing for dogs, says Brandenburg. It can be a good dog massage for anxiety, particularly for dogs who are fearful of human touch.How long does it take for dog pheromones to work? ›
Effects are usually noticed within 14 days for the diffuser and improve further over the first month. Use the pheromone products of your choice for a least one month. Total duration of use depends on the condition being treated but can be up to or longer than three months.Can my dog smell my boyfriend on me? ›
Forget turning to your best friends when you're unsure about the new guy you're dating—the best judge of his character could actually be your dog. A new Japanese study shows that dogs can sense when humans mistreat their masters.Can dogs smell human arousal? ›
There is no evidence thus far that dogs actually understand what is happening when two people have sex. They likely recognize the smell of pheromones when people become aroused and other scents associated with people engaging in intimacy.Can dogs smell you touched another dog? ›
So the short answer is yes, it is true your dog can tell when you've been around another dog. A dog's sense of smell is anywhere between 10,000 and 100,000 times more sensitive than ours (depending on the breed).What are three things that animals communicate with pheromones? ›
Animals may use scents to proclaim their readiness to mate, to mark out territorial boundaries, to warn off intruders and predators or, in some cases, to attract prey.
There are four types of pheromone: releaser, primer, signaler and modulator.What are 2 examples of pheromones? ›
In contrast, another scientific study tested two steroids, androstadienone and estratetraenol, which were considered to be human pheromones that influenced how attractive other people find individuals.Can humans be affected by animal pheromones? ›
Many examples exist in animals but their role in humans remains uncertain since adults have no functioning vomeronasal organ, which processes pheromone signals in animals. Yet pheromones can be detected by the olfactory system although humans under develop and underrate their smelling sense.What pheromones warn animals of possible danger? ›
Alarm pheromones offer a warning or a call for help and marshal attack. Social insects – ants, bees, wasps, and the unrelated termites, all show colony defense coordinated by alarm pheromones. Honeybees release an alarm pheromone when they sting an intruder such as a bear intent on robbing their nest of its honey.What are the three functions of pheromones? ›
Pheromones play a role in sexual attraction and copulatory behaviour, and they have been shown to influence the sexual development of many mammals as well as of insects such as termites and grasshoppers.Why do dogs lick you? ›
Licking is a natural and instinctive behaviour to dogs. For them it's a way of grooming, bonding, and expressing themselves. Your dog may lick you to say they love you, to get your attention, to help soothe themselves if they're stressed, to show empathy or because you taste good to them!Where do you touch a dog to make it happy? ›
- Lower back near the base of the tail.
- Belly and underside of the chest.
- Top of the head and neck.
- Under the chin.
- On the front of the neck.
- On the sides of the thighs.
Take his front paw in your hands and gently massage the paw pads and between his toes. If your dog needs more attention, go back to a soft and slow rub on his belly. You can talk to him in a quiet voice, or if he is still restless, start from the top again and work your way back down.Do vets use pheromones? ›
If you have a veterinary practice or manage a shelter, you're likely familiar with pheromone products available in the form of diffusers, sprays, wipes, or collars. These products claim to stop unwanted behaviors such as scratching, spraying, litter box mishaps, hiding, and fighting.Where do dogs release pheromones? ›
Pheromones are released from various glands of an animal's body, including those around the face and on the footpads, from sweat glands (especially on the abdomen) and from the animal's anal sacs.
Your dog, with their super-sensing nose, can certainly smell the pheromones your body is giving off, and often, they're game to investigate. This means they can stick their noses in places they certainly don't belong.Can dogs smell their owners from 11 miles away? ›
How far a dog smells depends on conditions such as wind and type of scent, but they have been reported to smell objects and people over 12 miles away. Dogs' olfactory systems work so well that they can be trained to pick up odors as little as a pictogram which is a trillionth of a gram.Can dogs sense love between two people? ›
Since this love bond is so strong, your dog's ability to sense and feel love, from you and for you, is a deep-rooted biological and emotional trait.Why do dogs sniff before they poop? ›
It's About Communication and Territory
You know the drill…the sniffing, the circling, and finally, it happens. This process of determining where to poop has much to do with your dog's instinct to tell other dogs who and where they are. They leave their scent by way of scent glands located in the inside of the rectum.
Key takeaway. Dogs sniff people's crotches because of the sweat glands, also known as apocrine glands, that are located there. Sniffing these glands gives a dog information about a person such as their age, sex, mood, and mating probability.Do male dogs prefer male or female owners? ›
“If a dog is taken care of by a female, they're more likely to prefer females, [whereas] if they're primarily taken care of by a male, they may prefer males.” And in some cases, these associations can be negative.Can a male dog sense when a woman is on her period? ›
Due to your pup's keen sense of smell, your dog definitely knows when your lady hormones are acting up. To put it bluntly, because of your dog's acute sense of smell, your pooch certainly knows when you're on your period, when you're having hormone imbalances, and when your female hormones are doing anything different.Why do dogs lick their genitals? ›
Dogs Lick Their Crotch to Stay Clean
They need to keep their genitals clean from dirt and discharge, and they don't use toilet paper for their anal region, so their tongue is the way to do it. Also, dogs don't have any body hang-ups.
On this note, research shows that dogs can sense depression, and many of them even respond lovingly to their humans in an attempt to cheer them up. In the same way that we pay attention to their behavior, dogs also pay attention to our actions to determine our “energy” that day.Can dogs smell anxiety? ›
Four dogs participating in the study found the breath and sweat sample taken from a stressed person in 93.8% of the trials.
Researchers have shown that human sweat, when dabbed on a woman's upper lip, can synchronize menstrual cycles, but they have not isolated the compound responsible, and no one has chemically identified pheromones in humans.How far can pheromones be detected? ›
Releaser. Releaser pheromones are pheromones that cause an alteration in the behavior of the recipient. For example, some organisms use powerful attractant molecules to attract mates from a distance of two miles or more. In general, this type of pheromone elicits a rapid response, but is quickly degraded.How do women's pheromones affect men? ›
In the present study, we investigated whether men's mood would be altered after exposure to a subthreshold concentration of a putatively female pheromone, estratetraenol. The results were that positive mood was enhanced in men during the course of the experiment as a function of estratetraenol exposure.Do female pheromones smell? ›
The compound androstenone can induce many reactions, depending on who is on the receiving end. For some, it smells sweet, like flowers or vanilla; to others it is foul, like sweat or urine.What body part releases the most pheromones? ›
Most proponents of the human pheromone concept assume that skin glands are the source of the active pheromonal agents. All three major skin glands—apocrine sweat glands, eccrine sweat glands, and sebaceous glands—can produce chemicals that become odorous.Which organ smells pheromone? ›
Function. In mammals, the sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ detect non-volatile chemical cues, which requires direct physical contact with the source of odor. Notably, some scents act as chemical-communication signals (pheromones) from other individuals of the same species.What do mens pheromones smell like? ›
The component is androstenone, a steroid derived from testosterone that is present in sweat. To some people, androstenone smells pleasant, with a sweet, floral, or vanilla-like scent. Others find the compound's odor offensive and liken it to sweat or urine. A third group can't even smell the compound.What animal is an example of pheromone? ›
Social insects have provided some of the most spectacular examples of pheromone evolution. Pheromones mediate many of the complex interplays within colonies of social insects such as bees, wasps, and ants. These include the familiar trails of ants and the honeybee alarm pheromones mentioned earlier.What do pheromones stimulate? ›
Pheromones Stimulate Mating and Differentiation via Paracrine and Autocrine Signaling in Cryptococcus neoformans - PMC. The .Can a woman smell a mans pheromones? ›
Women are indeed highly sensitive to male pheromones, particularly around ovulation, but many popular assumptions about the effects of these pheromones are the result of misinterpretation and over-simplification of the research results.
Pheromones work on a species-to-species basis, so cat pheromones will work on cats and dog pheromones will work on dogs. They won't impact other species or humans.Do pheromones come from your head? ›
At least one thing is for sure: most pheromones come off the skin. And the smaller studies that claim that yes, while the skin emits the biggest amount of pheromones in humans (in other animals it is usually urine and poop), even then these chemicals are concentrated in the hair – be it on the head or in other places.How do dogs react to human pheromones? ›
Dogs were found to prioritize the scent of humans over other scents. Typically when a dog sniffs a person they are uncomfortable with, it's due to the pheromones that person is giving off. To the dog, those pheromones may signal a threat or an alarm telling the dog to beware.What is dog pheromone? ›
Dog appeasing pheromone (DAP), sometimes known as apasine, is a mixture of esters of fatty acids released by the sebaceous glands in the inter-mammary sulcus of lactating female dogs. It is secreted from between three and four days after parturition and two to five days after weaning.How do pheromones affect animal behavior? ›
A pheromone is a species-specific chemical signal that incites a response in another organism. Pheromones are involved in a wide variety of behaviors, including mate selection, food acquisition, alarm responses, territory marking, predation defenses, and other social behaviors indicating social status.Do men have pheromones? ›
And smitten animals may indeed have "chemistry" together—pheromone signals are a subconscious part of their communication. Scientists didn't know if humans played that game as well. But in the last 30 years, they've identified both male and female putative pheromones that are linked to mood and reproductive cycles.Do dog calming scents work? ›
Many dogs get relief from dog calming pheromones, while others don't see much effect from DAP. As PetMD points out, “While calming pheromones may help with many issues in both dogs and cats, they don't work for every potential issue or behavioral problem your pet might be experiencing.” Dr.Do vets recommend Adaptil? ›
ADAPTIL is used and recommended by vets. ADAPTIL "comforting messages" helps dogs cope with stressful situations.Does Adaptil for dogs actually work? ›
There is no high quality evidence that Adaptil works for separation anxiety in dogs. The one good study13 found that a DAP diffuser did not improve behaviours such as barking, scratching, whining, howling, trembling, nor heart rate, eye or ear temperature of dogs.Do calming plug ins work for dogs? ›
Pheromone diffusers for anxious pets have received positive testimonies from cat and dog owners. Some even saying their pet is entirely different after using a calming plug-in. Studies have shown that pheromone diffusers help calm anxious dogs and cats in certain circumstances.
Pungent herbs like rosemary, mint, and basil are enough to make a dog crazy. Despite their distaste, these scent aversions can come in handy when reinforcing good behavior–especially when you want to keep your dig-happy dog out of your garden.What is the most calming way to pet a dog? ›
Most dogs are comfortable being petted on the chest, the shoulders, and the base of the neck. When petting these areas, reach in from the side, rather than moving your hand over the top of the dog's head.Can humans smell Adaptil? ›
These canine odorless messages are only perceived by dogs, not by people or by cats. These “comforting messages” provide a strong signal of security and comfort to dogs of all ages. ADAPTIL Calm releases “comforting messages” to help dogs feel reassured and relaxed in all challenging situations.Does Adaptil have any side effects? ›
Does Adaptil diffuser cause side effects? No known canine side effects are reported with Adaptil, though improper usage of the diffuser can lead to residue buildup on surfaces or furniture if items are placed within five feet above the plug-in. Follow the manufacturer's instructions to avoid such issues.Is Adaptil addictive for dogs? ›
However, for dogs that regularly encounter stressful situations, Adaptil Chews for Dogs can be used daily. These delightful soft chews start to work quickly. The calming ingredients will relax your dog without drowsiness and are safe and non-addictive.How can you tell if Adaptil is working? ›
Most dogs will benefit from the permanent use of an ADAPTIL Calm Home Diffuser to create a continuous reassuring environment in your home. Many dog owners start to see that their dog is calmer within about 7 days of first use.How long does it take for Adaptil to work on dogs? ›
How long should it take to see an effect on my dog with the ADAPTIL® Diffuser? The ADAPTIL® Diffuser will be fully functioning within 24 hours of plugging in. The effect on the dog will depend on the nature, extent and duration of the problem for which ADAPTIL® is used.Do you leave Adaptil plug in on all the time? ›
ADAPTIL ® Diffuser must be plugged in continuously. The ADAPTIL ® Diffuser unit should be replaced after six months of use or after using six refills.Can Alexa relax my dog? ›
You can also say “Alexa, comfort my dog” or “Alexa, calm my cat” to play calming sounds through your Echo device. You can access both features, and much more, through the Alexa app.Can dogs take melatonin? ›
According to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), melatonin is a safe supplement to give to your dog. Melatonin has little risk for harmful side effects . The most common side effect is lethargy upon waking the next morning.